Microsoft Office – Wikipedia
Microsoft Word is a word processing software developed by Microsoft. It was first released on October 25, , under the name Multi-Tool Word for Xenix. It contains a word processor (Word), a spreadsheet program (Excel) and a presentation program (PowerPoint), an email client (Outlook), a database management.
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Various solutions have been created. Since the format is a de facto standard, many word processors such as AbiWord or OpenOffice. Most of this interoperability is achieved through reverse engineering since documentation of the Word 1. The Word file format, however, is publicly documented. For the last 10 years Microsoft has also made available freeware viewer programs for Windows that can read Word documents without a full version of the Microsoft Word software.
Microsoft has also provided converters that enable different versions of Word to import and export to older Word versions and other formats and converters for older Word versions to read documents created in newer Word formats.
The aforementioned Word format is a binary format. This format does not conform fully to standard XML. It is, however, publicly documented as ECMA standard Public documentation of the default file format is a first for Word, and makes it considerably easier, though not trivial, for competitors to interoperate. Efforts to establish it as an ISO standard are also underway. It is possible to write plugins permitting Word to read and write formats it does not natively support.
Like other Microsoft Office documents, Word files can include advanced macros and even embedded programs. NET has become the preferred platform for Word programming.
This extensive functionality can also be used to run and propagate viruses in documents. The tendency for people to exchange Word documents via email, USB key, and floppy makes this an especially attractive vector. A prominent example is the Melissa worm, but countless others have existed in the wild. Some anti-virus software can detect and clean common macro viruses, and firewalls may prevent worms from transmitting themselves to other systems.
The first virus known to affect Microsoft Word documents was called the Concept virus, a relatively harmless virus created to demonstrate the possibility of macro virus creation. As of Word for Windows and Word for Macintosh , the program has been unable to handle ligatures defined in TrueType fonts: those ligature glyphs with Unicode codepoints may be inserted manually, but are not recognized by Word for what they are, breaking spellchecking, while custom ligatures present in the font are not accessible at all.
Other layout deficiencies of Word include the inability to set crop marks or thin spaces. Various third-party workaround utilities have been developed. Additionally, as of Word , Word does automatic font substitution when it finds a character in a document that does not exist in the font specified. It is impossible to deactivate this, making it very difficult to spot when a glyph used is missing from the font in use.
In Word for Macintosh, complex scripts support was inferior even to Word 97, and Word does not support Apple Advanced Typography features like ligatures or glyph variants. Users report that Word’s bulleting and numbering system is highly problematic. Particularly troublesome is Word’s system for restarting numbering. Versions for Microsoft Windows include:. Microsoft Wiki Explore. Windows families. Windows Windows 11 Windows 10 Windows 8. Windows CE Windows Embedded.
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Hypermarket Ventures Ltd. Retrieved January 24, Knor, Eric October 25, Infoworld, Inc. Krill, Paul October 19, Kolakowski, Nicholas October 20, Ziff Davis Enterprise Holdings Inc. Kolakowski, Nicholas October 24, Perez, Juan Carlos October 19, Computerworld Inc. Kincaid, Jason October 19, Whittaker, Zack June 28, Retrieved August 15, Franz, Markus August 17, Retrieved September 12, It introduced AutoCorrect, which automatically fixed certain typing errors, and AutoFormat, which could reformat many parts of a document at once.
While the Windows version received favorable reviews e. Many accused it of being slow, clumsy and memory intensive, and its user interface differed significantly from Word 5. Word for Windows is available stand-alone or as part of the Microsoft Office suite. Word contains rudimentary desktop publishing capabilities and is the most widely used word processing program on the market.
Word files are commonly used as the format for sending text documents via e-mail because almost every user with a computer can read a Word document by using the Word application, a Word viewer or a word processor that imports the Word format see Microsoft Word Viewer. It was a straightforward port of Word 6.
Starting with Word 95, releases of Word were named after the year of its release, instead of its version number. Word introduced a redesigned user interface that emphasized the most common controls, dividing them into tabs, and adding specific options depending on the context, such as selecting an image or editing a table. The redesigned interface also includes a toolbar that appears when selecting text, with options for formatting included.
Word also included the option to save documents as Adobe Acrobat or XPS files,  and upload Word documents like blog posts on services such as WordPress. Word allows the customization of the Ribbon,  adds a Backstage view for file management,  has improved document navigation, allows creation and embedding of screenshots,  and integrates with online services such as Microsoft OneDrive.
Word added co-authoring, a visual refresh on the start experience and tabs, automatic cloud saving, dark mode, line focus, an updated draw tab, and support for ODF 1.
The Mac was introduced on January 24, , and Microsoft introduced Word 1. Each platform restarted its version numbering at “1. Word 4. The later Word 6 was a Windows port and poorly received. Many people continue to run Word 5. Document compatibility reached parity with Word 97,  and it included features from Word 97 for Windows, including spell and grammar checking with squiggles.
Word , released in , added a few new features, including the Office Clipboard , which allowed users to copy and paste multiple items.
Word X, released in , was the first version to run natively on, and required, Mac OS X,  and introduced non-contiguous text selection. Word was released in May It included a new Notebook Layout view for taking notes either by typing or by voice. Word , released on January 15, , included a Ribbon-like feature, called the Elements Gallery, that can be used to select page layouts and insert custom diagrams and images.
It also included a new view focused on publishing layout, integrated bibliography management,  and native support for the new Office Open XML format. It was the first version to run natively on Intel-based Macs. Word , released in October , replaced the Elements Gallery in favor of a Ribbon user interface that is much more similar to Office for Windows,  and includes a full-screen mode that allows users to focus on reading and writing documents, and support for Office Web Apps.
Word , added real-time co-authoring, automatic cloud saving, dark mode, immersive reader enhancements, line focus, a visual refresh, the ability to save pictures in SVG format, and a new Sketched style outline. Microsoft Word’s native file formats are denoted either by a. Although the. The classic Mac OS of the era did not use filename extensions. The newer. During the late s and early s, the default Word document format. DOC became a de facto standard of document file formats for Microsoft Office users.
According to Joel Spolsky , Word Binary File Format is extremely complex mainly because its developers had to accommodate an overwhelming number of features and prioritize performance over anything else. As with all OLE Compound Files, Word Binary Format consists of “storages”, which are analogous to computer folders and “streams”, which are similar to computer files. Each storage may contain streams or other storage. Word and later continue to support the DOC file format, although it is no longer the default.
Opening a Word Document file in a version of Word other than the one with which it was created can cause an incorrect display of the document. The document formats of the various versions change in subtle and not so subtle ways such as changing the font or the handling of more complex tasks like footnotes. Formatting created in newer versions does not always survive when viewed in older versions of the program, nearly always because that capability does not exist in the previous version.
In October , one year before the Microsoft Office suite was released, Microsoft declared that there was insufficient demand from Microsoft customers for the international standard OpenDocument format support and that therefore it would not be included in Microsoft Office This statement was repeated in the following months. This work was started in response to government requests for interoperability with ODF. The goal of project was not to add ODF support to Microsoft Office, but only to create a plugin and an external tool-set.
Among its features, Word includes a built-in spell checker, a thesaurus, a dictionary, and utilities for manipulating and editing text. The following are some aspects of its feature set. Several later versions of Word include the ability for users to create their formatting templates, allowing them to define a file in which: the title, heading, paragraph, and other element designs differ from the standard Word templates. For example, Normal. It determines the margin defaults as well as the layout of the text and font defaults.
Although Normal. This will change other documents which were created using the template. It can also be used to create and display simple line art. Microsoft Word added support  for the common SVG vector image format in for Office ProPlus subscribers and this functionality was also included in the Office release.
WordArt enables drawing text in a Microsoft Word document such as a title, watermark, or other text, with graphical effects such as skewing, shadowing, rotating, stretching in a variety of shapes and colors, and even including three-dimensional effects. Users can apply formatting effects such as shadow, bevel, glow, and reflection to their document text as easily as applying bold or underline. Users can also spell-check text that uses visual effects and add text effects to paragraph styles.
A Macro is a rule of pattern that specifies how a certain input sequence often a sequence of characters should be mapped to an output sequence according to a defined process.
Frequently used or repetitive sequences of keystrokes and mouse movements can be automated. Like other Microsoft Office documents, Word files can include advanced macros and even embedded programs. This extensive functionality can also be used to run and propagate viruses in documents. The tendency for people to exchange Word documents via email, USB flash drives , and floppy disks made this an especially attractive vector in A prominent example was the Melissa virus , but countless others have existed.
These macro viruses were the only known cross-platform threats between Windows and Macintosh computers and they were the only infection vectors to affect any macOS system up until the advent of video codec trojans in Word’s macro security setting, which regulates when macros may execute, can be adjusted by the user, but in the most recent versions of Word, it is set to HIGH by default, generally reducing the risk from macro-based viruses, which have become uncommon. Before Word Word 14 for Windows, the program was unable to correctly handle ligatures defined in OpenType fonts.
Since Word , the program now has advanced typesetting features which can be enabled,  OpenType ligatures,  kerning and hyphenation previous versions already had the latter two features. Other layout deficiencies of Word include the inability to set crop marks or thin spaces.
Various third-party workaround utilities have been developed. In Word for Mac OS X, support of complex scripts was inferior even to Word 97  and Word did not support Apple Advanced Typography features like ligatures or glyph variants. Microsoft word is only awkwardly suitable for some kinds of technical writing, specifically, that which requires: mathematical equations , figure placement, table placement and cross-references to any of these items.
The usual workaround for equations is to use a third-party equation typesetter. Figures and tables must be placed manually; there is an anchor mechanism but it is not designed for fully automatic figure placement and editing text after placing figures and tables often requires re-placing those items by moving the anchor point and even then the placement options are limited.
This problem is deeply baked into Word’s structure since as it does not know where page breaks will occur until the document is printed. Microsoft Word supports bullet lists and numbered lists.
It also features a numbering system that helps add correct numbers to pages, chapters, headers, footnotes, and entries of tables of content; these numbers automatically change to correct ones as new items are added or existing items are deleted. Bullets and numbering can be applied directly to paragraphs and converted to lists.
In particular, a second irrelevant numbered list might have not started with number one but instead resumed numbering after the last numbered list. Although Word 97 supported a hidden marker that said the list numbering must restart afterward, the command to insert this marker Restart Numbering command was only added in Word However, if one were to cut the first item of the listed and paste it as another item e.
Users can also create tables in Word. Depending on the version, Word can perform simple calculations — along with support for formulas and equations as well. Word continues to default to non-Unicode characters and non-hierarchical bulleting, despite user preference for Powerpoint-style symbol hierarchies e.
Available in certain versions of Word e. According to Ron Fein of the Word 97 team, AutoSummarize cuts wordy copy to the bone by counting words and ranking sentences. First, AutoSummarize identifies the most common words in the document barring “a” and “the” and the like and assigns a “score” to each word — the more frequently a word is used, the higher the score. Then, it “averages” each sentence by adding the scores of its words and dividing the sum by the number of words in the sentence — the higher the average, the higher the rank of the sentence.
AutoSummarize was removed from the Office release version 14 as well. Word Mobile is a word processor that allows creating and editing documents. It supports basic formatting, such as bolding, changing font size, and changing colors from red, yellow, or green. It can add comments, but can’t edit documents with tracked changes.
It can’t open password protected documents, change the typeface, text alignment, or style normal, heading 1 ; create bulleted lists; insert pictures; or undo. Word for the web is a free lightweight version of Microsoft Word available as part of Office on the web, which also includes web versions of Microsoft Excel and Microsoft PowerPoint. Word for the web lacks some Ribbon tabs, such as Design and Mailings.
Mailings allows users to print envelopes and labels and manage mail merge printing of Word documents. Certain advanced features like table sorting or columns will not be displayed but are preserved as they were in the document. Other views available in the Word desktop app Outline, Draft, Web Layout and Full Screen Reading are not available, nor are side-by-side viewing, split windows and the ruler. The second and third password types were developed by Microsoft for convenient shared use of documents rather than for their protection.
There is no encryption of documents that are protected by such passwords and the Microsoft Office protection system saves a hash sum of a password in a document’s header where it can be easily accessed and removed by the specialized software. Password to open a document offers much tougher protection that had been steadily enhanced in the subsequent editions of Microsoft Office. Word 95 and all the preceding editions had the weakest protection that utilized a conversion of a password to a bit key.
Key length in Word 97 and was strengthened up to 40 bit. However, modern cracking software allows removing such a password very quickly — a persistent cracking process takes one week at most. Use of rainbow tables reduces password removal time to several seconds. Some password recovery software can not only remove a password but also find an actual password that was used by a user to encrypt the document using the brute-force attack approach. Statistically, the possibility of recovering the password depends on the password strength.
Nonetheless, a password can be fairly quickly picked with a brute-force attack, because its speed is still high regardless of the CSP selected. Moreover, since the CSPs are not active by default, their use is limited to advanced users only.
Word offers significantly more secure document protection which utilizes the modern Advanced Encryption Standard AES that converts a password to a bit key using a SHA-1 hash function 50, times. It makes password removal impossible as of today, no computer that can pick the key in a reasonable amount of time exists and drastically slows the brute-force attack speed down to several hundreds of passwords per second.